hLe 19 septembre 2006 : Un travail bénévole de S. M. que nous remercions vivement.

TOUT EN BAS! Ascenseur express
environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète Terre
Aluminium :known economically workable deposits will be exhausted in 2139

environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète Terre


The dreaded  billbook that shatters the man in the street

2012 : end of terbium
end of gold
end of zinc
2028 : end of tin
2050 : end of oil
2158 : end of coal

When will beans run out?

Aluminiumis a chemical element, with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It accounts for 1.5% of the total mass of the planet. It is chiefly extracted from bauxite, other rocks containing insufficient amounts for profitable exploitation.

Aluminium is the twentieth non-renewable resource set to disappear thanks to intensive exploitation by mankind.

Remaining workable deposits of bauxite (the principal aluminium ore) are estimated at 25 billion tonnes.

June 2008: at current rates of production, 190 million tonnes per year, deposits will last 131 years.

Extractable deposits of this metal will therefore disappear for good in 2139.

This information comes mainly from the USGS (United States Geological Service) http://minerals.usgs.gov/

This date is only a rough indication. Sources differ, and it could change with the evolution of our civilisation.

Applications: transport: 30%, building and construction: 18%, packaging: 17%, consumer goods: 6%, miscellaneous: 29%.

Problems arising from its disappearance will start to make themselves felt well before this fateful date. On this subject, see Hubbert's peak theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Of course, there will still be aluminium in the ground, but in extremely diluted form, rendering extraction impossible.

Even if, thanks to advances in technology, we find new deposits by digging deeper and deeper into the Earth's crust, this will afford us only a few years' reprieve and will not make a major impact on the situation.

Aluminium was created when a star exploded and the Sun and the Earth were formed from the debris, over five billion years ago.

You cannot produce it artificially and there is no substitute. The Moon and the asteroids do not contain the metal in an extractable form. And just imagine the energy it would take to bring some back from Mars or Venus!

Note that aluminium (3%) could be extracted from polymetallic nodules present on the ocean floor, at depths of several kilometres. The total quantity of polymetallic nodules on the ocean bed was estimated at over 500 billion tonnes by A.A. Archer in 1981. However, given the depths at which they occur, these deposits are not profitably recoverable.

There will still be recycling but demand, which will keep growing exponentially with the development of the emerging economies, will far outstrip supply.

30% of the world's known bauxite reserves are located in the Republic of Guinea. Australia: 23%. Jamaica: 8%. Cuba: 8%.


To learn more about aluminium, see: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium

Translation Nicholas ROSE

environnement, nature, écologique, bioDon't miss reading Point of view by Michel Walter, a programme for the end of our civilisation of wastage.

S. M., le 23 janvier 2007

Bonobo : Qu'est-ce que c'est que ce binz?Anne Esperet

  Abonnez-vous gratuitement à la liste d'information SOS-planete




environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète Terre Automatic translation in English of the 32000 pages of the french site SOS-planete

environnement, nature, vert, écologie, biologique, planète Terre Projected dates for the exhaustion of exploitable natural resources at current consumption rates

nature, environnement, écologie, biologiqueUnpublished clickable graphic


Fil d'info RSS    nature, environnement, écologie, biologiquePortillon de la base vivante   nature, environnement, écologie, biologiqueJardin

Retour au sommet de la page

Les dernières mises à jour du site   Portillon de la base  Valid XHTML 1.0 Transitional  Entrez dans le jardin de la base

Vous avez aimé cette page. Partagez-la
avec vos ami(e)s sur les réseaux sociaux

Partager avec vos amis sur le réseau social Google Plus Partager avec vos amis sur le réseau social Linkedin S'abonner gratuitement au fil d'info RSS du vaisseau-mère de Demain l'Homme, ex SOS-planete



Citations d'Hommes justes

Vous pouvez nous envoyez les phrases
(d'Anciens ou non) qui vous semblent
aller de soi et participer à l'ouverture
des consciences


Wiki sur Terre - Sois acteur du changement - Demain l'Homme



Abonnement gratuit à la
newsletter HEBO
confidentielle de Demain l'Homme


Transmettez par cette
voie votre récolte d'infos vraies
(lesquelles seront vérifiées)

Cet annuaire est mis à jour régulièrement par Cédric, président de l'Association. Il est facile d'y inscrire GRATUITEMENT votre site

Exprimez-vous librement sur ce site

LIVRE D'OR. Expression libre

Suivre le Flux RSS de Demain l'Homme